مشرف مجلس قبائل السودان و القرن الافريقي
علم الدولة :
معدل تقييم المستوى: 23
Nubian In the Old Days
Nubian In the Old Days
For unjustifiable reasons Nubian Civilization has been overlooked in favor of the another Great Egyptian Civilization. Respectivelly all findings in the past have been attributed to Egypt, while Egypt's High Dam made it impossible for current excavations. More than 100 of Nubian villages in (most of them in Sudan )with all monuments,tombs,temples were flooded by the waters of Nasser Lake after the construction of this High dam. Very few monuments (only 4)of Nubia of Sudan were saved during an international campaign by world community to salvage Nubian Culture, while 20 or more were saved from the Egyptian Monuments during the same campaign.
Upper Nubia,Lower Nubia,Kash,Land of Kush,Land of the bow,Wawat,Te-Seti,Te-Nehesy,Nubadae,Napata, Kingdoem of Meroei..and more. All refer to 'The Greatest African Civilization"of Nubia . Nubia an 800 km of land along the Nile river , bounded by the First Catract of the River Nile south of Aswan(Egypt) and the Six Catract South of Khartoum (capital of Sudan). Except for a very small strip of land along the Nile north of Sudan all Nubia land is in Sudan. Respectivelly Sudan is the Homeland of this Great Civilization of Africa.
This Great Civilization has been dealt with great unfairness and intentional negligence. Recently the awareness towards Nubia started growing rapidly among Scholars,archaeologists,Nubian,African,African-Arabs,African-Americans ,Disaparos and several Museums in America and Europe . Several missions and Institutes are carrying on excavations in Sudan to shed more light on this great Nubia...However still most of the findings are being attributed to Egypt and Egyptology The chances that this Great African Civilization might be overlooked again is prevailing , if we take in consideration the economical and other difficulties in Sudan. It is the role of all Africans African-Arabs,African-Americans ,Disaparo and the international community to initiate another Salvage Campaign of the Nubian Civilization. This time not to save it from inundation by water but from inundation by negligence and being overlooked again.
(Copyright © 1997 Oriental Institute, University of Chicago)
A-Group: 3800-3100 B.C.
C-Group: 2300-1550 B.C.
Kerma Culture: 2000-1559 B.C.
Egyptian Domination: 1950-1100 B.C.
Napatan Period 747-200 B.C.
Meroitic Period 200 B.C.-A.D. 300
X-Group (Ballana Period) A.D. 250-550
Christian Period: A.D. 550-1400
NUBIA - "Its glory and its people"
(From ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MUSEUM-1987 EXHIBITION: BROCHURE)
To the ancient Mediterranean world, the land south of Egypt was a territory of mystery and legend. Wealth and exotic products came from there. It was the home of the Ethiopians, whom Homer called blameless and stories about its great achievements endured to tantalize the modern world. This land, which now includes Nubia, is a land of enormous distances, and its exploration was long impeded by problems of transport and political unrest. In the last hundred years, Nubia has slowly yielded its secrets, its vanished peoples, abandoned cities and lost kingdoms brought to light by the excavator and copyist of inscriptions. This exhibit is a selection of objects recovered over twenty years ago by the Oriental Institute Nubian Expedition in the effort to rescue archaeology from the rising water behind the Aswan Dam.The land of Nubia is a desert divided by the river Nile. For want of water and rich soil, most of Nubia has never been able to support a large population for long periods. However, some of Africa's greatest civilizations emerged here, centers of achievement whose existence was based on industry and trade. Because they did not write their own languages until very late in ancient times, we know these centers and their people largely through their archaeology and what the Egyptians and Greeks said about them.
for more on this ,please see
NUBIA THE LAND AND ITS PEOPLE
(From ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MUSEUM-1992 EXHIBITION: BROCHURE)
Nubia is located in today's southern Egypt and northern Sudan. This land has one of the harshest climates in the world. The temperatures are high throughout most of the year, and rainfall is infrequent. The banks of the Nileare narrow in much of Nubia, making farming difficult. Yet, in antiquity, Nubia was a land of great natural wealth,of gold mines, ebony, ivory and incense which was always prized by her neighbors.Nubia is the homeland of Africa's earliest black culture with a history which can be traced from 3100 B.C.onward through Nubian monuments and artifacts, as well as written records from Egypt and Rome.
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Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa-
( From The Kelsey Museum of Archeology "PRESS RELAESE")
The exhibition places ancient Nubians and their civilization in a new historical context, offering visitors a compelling well-founded perspective on this little-known African civilization. "Nubians in the Bronze Age, from about 3100 BC to 1000 BC, are usually thought of as divided into small chiefdoms, with the partial exception of the Kingdom of Kush in the Middle Bronze Age. However, recent research suggests that large kingdoms arose in Nubia much earlier than is generally thought. Over the centuries Nubians and Egyptians competed for power and advantage throughout the vast Lower Nile region, from the Mediterranean Sea south to the Sixth Cataract in the Sudan. Powerful and centrally organized early Nubians are truly Egypt's rivals in Africa" states Dr. David O'Connor, curator of the exhibition.
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The Economic Importance of Nubia
Peter A. Piccione
© 1995. All rights reserved.
(from Joseph Schaffner Library Collection-Northwestern University Library http://www.library.nwu.edu/class/history/B94/)
Exploitation by Egypt
Precious Metals and Stone. Egyptian interests in Nubia were always driven by economics. The one factor that chiefly characterized Egypt's relationship with Nubia through most of their history was exploitation. Nubia's most important resource for Egypt was precious metal, including gold and electrum. The gold mines of Nubia were located in certain valleys and mountains on either side of the Nile River, although the most important mining center was located in the Wadi Allaqi. That valley extended eastward into the mountains near Qubban (about 107 km. south of Elephantine). Nubia was also an important source of valuable hard stone and copper, both of which were necessary for Egypt's monumental building projects.
Trading in African Goods. Especially important for Egypt was that Nubia was also a corridor to central Africa and a point for the trans-shipment of exotic goods from that region, including: frankincense, myrrh, "green gold," ivory, ebony and other exotic woods, precious oils, resins and gums, panther and leopard skins, monkeys, dogs, giraffes, ostrich feathers and eggs, as well as pygmies (who became important to Egyptian religious rituals). In the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians regularly penetrated as far as the Second Cataract to barter for these products which were coming down through the upper Nile Valley (viz., the expeditions of Harkhuf, Hekayib, Mekhu and Sabni).
Manpower. Nubia was also an important source of manpower and labor for the Egyptians. The Palermo Stone records that early in the Fourth Dynasty, King Snefru led a military campaign into Nubia reputedly to crush a "revolt" there (the Egyptians considered all enemies--whether foreign or domestic--as "rebels" against the natural order). According to that text, he captured 200,000 head of cattle and 7,000 prisoners, all of whom were deported to Egypt as laborers on royal building projects. While some archaeologists argue that this campaign was limited to Lower Nubia, others note that the amount of 7,000 is rather high for a country that was fairly depopulated at the time. If the number was not inflated as royal propaganda, then Snefru could have penetrated into Upper Nubia as far as the Land of Yam and made his conquests there.
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CHRONOLOGY OF BISHOPS OF FARAS
From: Kazimierz Michalowski book "FARAS"
Episcopte: in twenties--thirties of the 7th century. First known Rishup of Pskhoras; possibly the builder of the First Cathedral Church. Contrmpornry ruler of Nubia: unknown.
Period of the episcupales: mid-7th century. Coiltemporary ruler of Doneola: Qalidurut. Main evets: Arab raids on Dongola in 611 and 65112. During this lilne possibly the First Cathedral at Faras destroyed. Signin~g of the Baqt with Arabs.
Episcopate: 2nd half of the 7th century. Buildcr of the Great
Church ar Fanras to replace the destroyed Cathedral.
Monophysite bishop. Episcopate: end of 7th and beginning of 8thcentury; d. in 709 or 719. Responsible for the great building activity in Pakhoras; founder of the rebuilt Cathedral in 7. Beginning (?) of violet style murals. Contemporary ruler: King Merkurios (697 until 710 at the earliest). Main events: Unification of Nobadia and Makuria. Adoption of onophysite faith as the Nubian state religion. Establishing (?) of the post of Eparch (governor of Nobadia)--Markos, first known eparch's name attested in Faras.
Monophysite Uishop. Episcopatz: 709 or 719 until 730; d. in 730. Contemporary rulers: Zacharias I and Silneon.
Monophysite Bishop. Episcopate: 730-766: d. 31 May 766. Contemporary rulers: AbraHam, Markos and Kyriakos (c. 740-760); Eparch Pauloskudda (?) (750-768). Main events: Nubians invade Egypt (745). Period of prosperity in Nubia.
Bishpp of non-Nubian origin transferred to FAras from another diocese. Episcopate: 766-802; d. 23 January 802, aged 78. Completion of painted decoration of the CAthedral (violet
style). NuhiAn school of mural painting already developped. Contemporary rulers. Michael and Ioannesl (end of sth century).
Episcopate: 802-809 (?); d. in 809 ('!). Contemporary ruler: King Chael; Eparch Kyriakos (c. 801-813). Main events: Unitication (?) with Alwa
10. IOANNES (11)
Episcopate:after 809 (?).
Episcopate: 12 years between 810 and 826; Contemporary ruler: Zacharis II(?).
12. CHAEL (I)
Episcopate: from (?) to 827; d. in 827 (?).
Monophysite Bishop. Episcopate: 827-862; d. 16 July 862, aged over 75. Contemporary ruler: Zacharias II (d. in 856 or 866). Main events: Wars between Bedja and Arabs (831 and 856) . Embassy of Prince Georgios to Baghdad(836).
Episcopate: from about 862 to 866; d. in 866. Contemporary ruler: Georgios I(enthronment--856 or 866).
Monophysite, Metropolitan Bishop. Episcopate: 866-902; d. in 902. Renovation and partial rebuilding of the Faras Cathedral. White style murals. Contemporary ruler: Ceorgios I (until 920); Eparch Zacharias (c.868-878). Main events: Troubles with al-Omari, the gold prospector (868-869). Development of Nubian State observed in agriculture, architecture and crafts (pottery). Establishing in Faras of Metropolitan see (besides one in OId Dongola).
Episcopate: 902-903; d. in 903. Founder of the rebuilt church at Aksha.
Monophysite, Metropolitan Bishop. Episcopate 903-923;d. 13 August 923, aged 62. Further decoration of the Cathedral,beginning of yellow-red style. Contemporary rulers: Ceorgios I and Zacharias IIT (enthronment 920).
Monophysite Bishop, Episcopate: 923-925; d. 14 July 926, aged 52. Contemporary ruler; Zacharias IIT.
Monophysite, Metropolitan Bishop. Episcopate: 926-952; d. 6 August 952. Destruction of the Faras Cathedral by fire (c. 927). Building of the Church on the South Slope of the Kom (930). Contemporary ruler: Zacharias TII; Eparch Iesu (c. 930). Main events: Nubian attack on Egyptian eases (952).
Monophysite, Metropolitan Bishop. Episcopate: 952-972; d. 12 December 972, aged 61. Large scale rebuilding of the Cathedral. Contemporary ruler: Georgios II (from c.969). Main events: Nubians attack Aswan and Edfu (956) and occupy Upper Egypt. Height of Nubian State power.
21. PETROS (I)
Monophysite, Metropolitan Bishop. Episcopate: 974-999 (in charge of the Cathedral until Autumn 997 only); d. 20 July 999, aged 93; Buried at the Church on South Slope of the Kom. Decoration of the Cathedral with new murals: red and multicoloured style. Dispute between Melchites and Mono physites over the diocese of Faras. In the result the Cathedral is taken over by the Melchites. Contemporary ruler: Georgios II (c. 969--until 979 or 1003). Main events: Peaceful elations with Egypt under the Fatimide rule.
22. IOANNES (III)
Melchite Bishop. Episcopate: 997-1005; d. 21 September l005, aged 82. Introduction of the Dyophysite faith to the Cathedral in the consequence of the policy of friendship with Egypt where al-Aziz acts in favour of the Melchite Church. Contemporary ruler: Raphael (1002-1006),
Melchite Bishop. Former Archimandrite of Puke, Bishop of Cairo (?) transferred to Faras; "Spiritual Son" of Bishop Ioannes(III). Episcopate: 1005-1036; d. in Qasr Ibrim 11 November 1036, aged 69. Further decoration of the Cathedral. Flourishing of multicoloured style· Contemporary ruler: Stephanos (c. 1027); Eparch: Ioannes (c. 1007). Main events: Friendly relations with Fatimide Egypt continued. Building activity in Dongola.
Melchite Bishop, "Spiritual Son" of Bishop Ioannes(III) Episcopate: 1037-1056; d. 1July 1056, aged 80. After his episcopate a break of to years in the chronology of Faras Bishops. Contemporary ruler unknown
25. PETROS (II)
Monophysite Bishop. Episcopite: 1058-1062;d. 22 May 1062. The Cathedral taken over again by the Monophysites. Contemporary ruler: Salomon (?). Main events: Growth in strength of the Monophysite Church in Nubia as a result of the visit to Nubin of Christodulos, the Patriarch of Alexandria(1058),
Monophysite Bishop. Episcopite: 1062-1047; d. 14 August 1097, aged 95. Painting in Faras reaches its climax(multi-coloured style), Centemporary rulers: Salomon (until 1080), Georgios III and Basilios (c. 1089). Main events: Old Nubian possibly accepted as the official language in the State and Church (?).
27. CHAEL (II)
Melchite(?) Bishop. "Spiritual Son" of Bishop IosephTimekleos. Episcopite: 1097 (?) until c. 1125-1130; d. 5 May 11.., aged 80, Reinstatrment of the Melchite rite in Faras (?). Contemporary ruler: unknown,
28. IESU (II)
Melchite (?) Bishop. Last name of the List of Bishops. Episcopate: from c, 1125-11 30 until 1170-1175; d. 4June11.. aged 88.Contemporary rulers: Georgios IV(1130-1158) and Moise (c. 1160), Main events: War with Egypt, Qasr Ibrim occupied by Arabs (I I 72-1 173). Battle of Adindan near
Faras (1175) when the Faras Cathedrall was damaged.
Melchite (?) Bishop, tasokhon of the Church or St Michael in Faras. Episcopate: late 12th century; d, 31 March 1193 (?).
Cathedrnl ceased to fulfil epicopal functions. After its provisory protection against blown sand was used as a church possibly until 15th century. Close to the CathedraI North Monastery was built in 13th (?) century. Gradual decline of Nubinn State. Last Christian King of Nubia, Kudanbes dethroned in 1323, Hiss Audience Hall in Old Dongoln turned into 3 mosque (1317). In Nobadia Christinn King of Do-Tauwo attested in 15th century.
Monophysite. Bishop of Phrim and Pakhoras (residing in Qasr Ibrirn), consecrated bishop