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افتراضي من أبحاثي في تاريخ اللغة الإنجليزية.. مصطلحات القرابة و معانيها في الإنجليزية الوسطى و الحديثة

. Introduction

The kinship term is known as the one of the most complicated systems in any cultures and it is considered as the system of relationship between societies (Dousset, 2011). The first person who found the studies of kinship was Lewis H. Morgan who wrote the first book of kinship in 1870. The name of the first book that was written by him is Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family. Every society around the globe is different from each other in terms of many areas even in kinship terminology. For instance, some societies have twelve terms and some of them have less or more than twelve terms (word press, 2015). All nations and human societies have their own kinship terms and different kinship terms may affect and benefit on different societies variously (Yule, 2010). For example, it can help them to show a different degree of respect to their different kin. Moreover, the kinship terminology and their different meaning according to various communities can show them whom one can marry from or not marry and there is other plenty of benefit of the studies of kinship.

This research aims to Compare and analyse English kinship terms in Middle English and Modern English in terms of their meaning and morphological structure.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Diachronic linguistics

Historical linguistics or as it is named diachronic linguistics is the term that is derived from the Greek 'dia' which means through + 'cronos' which means time + 'ic' (Campbell, 1998). Diachronic linguistics is considered as the first branch of linguistics, and it was found in the 19th century (Trask, 2000). The term of diachronic linguistics refers to the study of language change. What is more, that branch of linguistics aims to study the changes that occur in a particular language it also, aims to compare the language with itself by comparing the different phases of the target language and see how the language has been developed through different stages. In addition to that, it studies the language change over time. There are plenty of ways for studying the language historically. For example, a linguist may investigate how a particular language is changed over different periods. Therefore, the linguist can consider and highlight the changes in the target language over various phases. For instance, the changes from the middle English to the modern English and then the linguist can note the changes that occur in terms of linguistics changes whether these changes occur in phonological features, morphological features, syntactical features, semantic features, or even in any other features.

2.1.1 Diachronic Semantics



Diachronic semantics as it is sometimes called historical semantics is an approach in linguistics fields, which aims to study the ways in which language's meanings have changed over different stages of a language (Cruse, 2006). Furthermore, it focuses on the outcomes of the changes that happen to the words. However, the matter of changing in words' meaning cause a controversial issue for many researchers (Traugott, 2017). Therefore, it can be seen there are six rankings of the semantic changes, which have been done in the 20th century. The classifications are Metaphorization, Metonymization, Generalization, Amelioration, Pejoration and Narrowing (Traugott, 2017). These classifications will show how a meaning has changed over time and what happen to the meaning that leads him to change.

2.1.2. Diachronic Morphology

Diachronic Morphology refers to the study of the words' structures over time and the field of diachronic morphology aims to discover the core of changes that occur to the word structures. In addition to that, it aims to identify the reasons of morphological changes that happen to the words' structure (Trips, 2017)

2.2 Comparative linguistics

Comparative linguistics can be defined as the methodical study of the languages' similarities and differences from a comparative viewpoint (Matasovic, 2009). The field of comparative linguistics was first found in 1786 by Sir William Jones who was an English judge served in Calcutta (Dunn, 2004). The term of comparative linguistics is sometimes considered with the historical linguistics as one branch. However, both of these two different branches have its own rules and methods. The aims of comparative linguistics is to compare and classify languages and to identify the common and diverse features that languages have which have been resulted from the historical changes that happen to the languages. The areas of comparison can be in phonological features, semantic features, morphological features, etc (Rankin, 2017).


2.1.2 Comparative Semantics

The term of comparative semantics is known as an act of trying to discover the meanings and how these meanings behave (Canart, 2014). Comparative semantics attempt to highlight what words mean in a language and describe them based on some aspects.

2.1.3 Comparative Morphology

Comparative Morphology aims to study the word structure and how these words can be formed. The comparative linguistics started to analyse and describe the words' elements in a language in 19th century (Yule, 2010). Comparing words in different languages can be by analysing the words' elements and then compare them based on different aspects. For example, Affixes, Roots, Compounding words, etc. All the previous aspects will be discussed later in the discussion section.

2.1.4. Description of kinship terms

The following data shows the description of the kinship terms that are used in the Middle and the Modern English phase. The description will be based on the exist of the kinship terms in both target stages of English language.

3. Discussion of results

3.1. Semantic of kinship terms

The semantic of kinship terms will be discussed below according to two frames, which are terms that are related to each other in terms of blood relationship and Marriage relationship.

3.1.1 Blood Relation

The blood kinship terms in the two periods of English are similar to each other. The following tables show the terms that are related to each other in terms of blood relationship as well as their different meanings.


Table 1

The table below shows, the meanings of the word Father in two different phases of English Language development, which are Middle English and Modern English.

Meanings ... Middle English... Modern English

1 The male parent of a human being + +
2 The male parent of an animal. + -
3 Ancestor + -
4 A creator, originator, or founder. + -
5 Spiritual relation to another one, a father confessor, One who holds the highest position, addressing the king. + -
6 Applied to God. + +
7
First Person of the Trinity, the Creator, as man's spiritual father in heaven. Applied to Jesus. + -
8 An ecclesiastical superior, title of an abbot or prior, title of a bishop, fader in God and as title of the Pope. + -
9 A religious priest, a monk. + +
10 The senators of ancient Rome; conscript faderes. + -
11 Addressing an older man and a man of the master class. + -
12 The kin of one's father, the country of (one's) father. + -

The data that is used above was collected from various sources (see the references section). The table displays differences and similarities between the meanings of the word father that is existed in the Middle and Modern English.
According to the analysis, the number of meanings of the word father in Modern English decreased to three meanings only. In contrast, to the twelve meanings that are existed in Middle English. As what have seen above the Modern English father does not contain the meaning that is related to the animal parent as it is seen above in the meaning two. In addition, the Modern English does not contain the meaning of father that is applied to Jesus (see table one, example five). Moreover, there are other meanings that Modern English does not has (see the table one). In general, the reducing of the meanings in Modern English might happen because of life changes in terms of cultural rules and changes as well as the historical changes. Moreover, it might happen due to the development that opens a window to cultural and civilizational integration to integrate and communicate with other cultures.

Table 2

The table below shows, the meanings of the word Mother Middle English and Modern English.
Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 A female human parent. + +
2 Used of a goddess, animals and birds. + -
3 A female progenitor more remote than a parent, ancestress. + -
4 Applied to the Virgin Mary and man's spiritual mother. + -
5 A woman not related by blood, who assumes the role of, or is regarded as, a mother, foster mother. + -
6 Abbes. + +
7 Addressing a mature or an elderly woman; a term for an old woman of lower class, a derogatory term for a girl or young woman, wench. + +
8 functions of a mother (procreative, nutritive, protective), regarded with the affection or reverence due a mother, the heavenly Jerusalem; the Church, a university, the earth; nature, queen of plants, the seven deadly sins, term for sophic mercury, ingredients of the philosopher's stone. + -
9 The uterus of a woman, the reproductive organs of a female animal. + -
10 The outermost and innermost membranous envelope of the brain, mistranslation of L dura mater. + -
11 Astron. The principal part of an astrolabe. + -
12 A human being; man, building stone; the chief church of a country, the mother's side of one's family, the mother's race, native language, a divided number, intelligence, common sense. + -
13 In place names and surnames. + -

From the data that is collected above it can be seen that term Mother in the Middle English has thirteen meanings. Unlike Modern, English has three meanings existed from the previous period. As it is shown in table two, the three existing meanings are meaning one, six and seven. The reducing of meanings might happen due to the historical changes that affect peoples' life.


Table 3

The table below shows, the word Uncle in two periods of English
language.

Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 A brother of one’s father or mother. + +
2 for addressing + -
3 used as a title preceding a proper name; + +
4 As surname. + -

According to the table above, there are four meanings of term Uncle in Middle English. However, the number of meanings reduce to two meanings in Modern English, which is meaning one and three, and there is absence of meaning two and four in modern English. That might happen due to the semantic broadening it means the words become more general than what were in the precious.


Table 4

The table that has be drawn below displays the word meanings of Aunt in two phases of the English language.

Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 The sister of one's father or mother. + +
2 Daughter of one's aunt, the son of one's aunt. + -

From the table above it can be considered there are two meanings of the word Aunt in Middle English, but one meaning exists in Modern English, which is 'The sister of one's father or mother'. That might occur, since the changes in the notion of the aunt to include 'Daughter of one's aunt' to show more respect by considering the daughter of one's aunt as an aunt.

Table 5
The table that has be seen below shows the meanings of the term Son in the two development stages of the English language.
Meanings

Middle English Modern English
1 The male child of a human being, pagan deity, or personified abstraction. + +
2 Uncle's son, a male child born to a free woman, adopt one who assumes the role of a son to someone else, the male offspring of an animal. + -
3 Descendants, members of a clan or tribe, Jews by birth; a term for the Christ, applied to Jesus of Nazareth. + -
4 As a title for the Messiah, regarded as the promised Messiah. + _
5 One who stands in a spiritual relationship, a religious superior or mentor, to the church, to God or Jesus. + -
6 An inhabitant, the Israelites, a dependency. + -
7 As a term of address. + +
8 For a man of a lower rank, addressing by a pagan goddess.
One who inherits the spirit or displays the character of someone. + -
9 one who pratices something, characterized by the presence or influence of a quality, vice, virtue children of the promise, believers, persons worthy of damnation, one who by rights belongs to the devil. + -
10 The Antichrist, Judas, as an epithet for a naughty child, as an epithet for a wicked fellow. +
-
11 A concomitant virtue regarded as descended from another virtue. + -
12 Man, fellow, human beings. + -
13 A fruitful place. + +
14 In surnames. + -

From fourteen meanings of the term son in Middle English there are only three meanings exist in Modern English as it is shown above. That might happen because of the changes in social life and international communication with other nations and languages, which may affect on each other and cause the reducing on some meanings from widening meanings to narrowing meanings.

Table 6

The table that has been drawn below shows the meanings of the term Daughter in the two stages of the English language.
Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 Daughter of a pagan god or deity, female offspring of an animal. + -
2 A female descendent, a spiritual inheritrix, daughters of the people, mortal women, Philistine women. + +
3 Used familiarly to a young woman. + -
4 A female inhabitant of a country a Jewess, a pious woman, an ecclesiastical ward or subordinate, a spiritual ward, a devout woman. + -

As it is shown above, there are four meanings of the word daughter in Middle English. In contrast to one meaning exists in Modern English, which is 'A female descendent'. That might occur because of the changes in the social life of people.

Table 7

The table beneath demonstrates the meanings of the word Nephew in two differ stages of English language.
Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 Son of one's sister or brother. +
+
2 Relative, cousin. + -
3 In surnames. +
-

The word nephew in Middle English has three meanings while there is only one meaning exists in Modern English. It means that term has widening meaning in Middle English and it is inclusive meaning, since it has three different, meanings (see the table above). Unlike in the Modern English which consists of one meaning of the term Nephew, which means 'Son of one's sister or brother'.



Table 8

The table shows the meanings of the word Niece in the Middle and Modern English.
Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 Descendants. + -
2 A female relative + +
3 A kinsman. + -

According to the data, which is written on above table, there are three meanings of the word niece in the Middle English. Compared to one meaning in the Modern English which is ' A female relative'. That means in today English the word niece is restricted only for a female relative.

Table 9

The table that is given below shows the meanings of the term Cousin in the Middle and Modern English.

Meanings Middle English Modern English

1 Any relative by blood or by marriage. + +
2 relative by marriage or by blood, two persons of whom one is the offspring of the other's first cousin, a descendant, one who is related by sponsorship at baptism or confirmation, a relative of one's godparent or godchild, closely related thing. + -
3 Nephew or niece, cousin. +
-

4 An intimate, a mistress. + -

As what have be mentioned above there are five meanings of the word cousin in the Middle English. Compared to one meaning exists in the Modern English which is 'Any relative by blood or by marriage'. That might mean in today English the word cousin is only used for the relative by blood or marriage.

Table 10

The table that have be drawn below displays various meanings of the term Brother in the middle and Modern English.

Meanings Middle English Modern English

1 A brother by blood relationship, love for (one's) brother, a fratricide. + -
2 A brother born of the same father and mother, + +
3 A full brother. + _
4 Brother born of the same mother. Any male kinsman. + _
5 relationship between Christ and mankind, a thing having close affinity with another, a fellow Christian, fellow ruler. + _
6 A man bound to another by an oath of loyalty or brotherhood. + +
7 A sworn brother + _
8 Fellow member of a religious order, an associate of a religious house. + +
9 Menour, a Franciscan friar, fellow member of a guild close friend, comrade, associate, Christ's disciples. + _

According to the data below the term brother has ten meanings in the Middle English compared to three meanings in the Modern English, which are in number two, six and eight. That might occur due to the changes in the peoples' social life.

Table 11

The table below clearly shows the meaning of the word Sister in the Middle and Modern English.

Meanings Middle English
Modern English

1 A female sibling. + +
2 a sister who is a queen, a personification of the White Paternoster, to trust no one, (oldest) sister, a younger sister, denoting familial relationship, a sister's progeny the daughter of a sister, a niece, the sister of a husband, a nephew, kinswoman, a female sibling of an animal or a bird. + _
3 The Fates, one of the nine Muses, the Pleiades, the goddess Diana, the moon. + _
4 A woman sharing the human condition; a fellow woman, fellow creature. + +
5 Addressing to an unrelated woman. + +
6 A term of endearment for a lover. + _
7 A creature regarded as closely akin to a person, fellow creature and affectionate address. + +
8 A woman sharing the Christian faith; a female fellow Christian; a spiritual intimate. + _
9 A kin to someone in the manner of a sister or fellow, regarded as akin to another of its kind, something regarded as closely related to oneself. + _
10 A female member of a religious house. + +
11 A female member of a guild. + _
12 Device used to secure ropes on a ship. + _
13 In surname and place name. + _

As what have be seen above the word sister has thirteen meanings in Middle English compared to five meanings in Modern English and the other meanings are absent in today English like the meaning that the term sister refers to the 'a female sibling of an animal'. The reducing in meanings are might happen because of the changes f some notions. For example, in the Middle English the notion the sister is related to goddess in contrast to today English as it is seen in the table there are no absence of that notion.

Table 12
The table below shows the meanings of the term Grandfather in two periods of the English language.

Meanings Middle English Modern English
1 A grandfather, ancestor. + +
2 A father-in-law. + -

According to the analysis, the number of meanings in the Modern English reduced to one compared to two meanings in the Middle English. That means the term grandfather is restricted only for the father's or mother's male parent and the term shows narrowing meaning in Modern English compared to the widening meaning in the Middle English.


Table 13

The table underneath displays the meanings of the word Grandmother in the Middle and Modern English language.

Meanings Middle English Modern English

1 Grandmother + +
2 Mother-in-law + _
3 The earth as the 'mother' of mankind. + _

The table above shows three existing meanings of the term Grandmother in the Middle English compared to one existing meaning in the Modern English. That means the term grandfather is restricted only for the father's or mother's male parent and the term shows narrowing meaning in Modern English compared to the widening meaning in the Middle English.




3.1.2 Marriage Relation

In the middle and Modern English, the following table show the meanings of terms in the Middle and Modern English. In addition, it display the marriage relationship of each word.

Table 14

The table above demonstrates the meanings of Husband in the two stages of English language.

Meanings Middle English Modern English

1 Married man. + +
2 Paterfamilias, resident, a host. + -
3 A bondman, the croft land attached to his homestead, farmer. + -
4 As surname. + -

As what have be seen above the term Husband has five meanings in the Middle English compare to one meaning exists in the Modern English. In general, the reducing of the meanings in the Modern English might happen because of life changes in terms of cultural rules and changes as well as the historical changes. Moreover, it might happen due to the development that opens a window to cultural and civilizational integrations.


Table 15

The table underneath shows the various meanings of the word Wife in the middle and modern English language.

Meanings Middle English Modern English

1 A human biological female, the female partner in procreation. + +
2 Mistress of a household, a steward. + -
3 An elderly woman.
Everyone, male and female alike.
sexual activity with a woman, coitus, abnormal menstrual flow;
a heraldic badge of uncertain appearance;
A barmaid, female agricultural, a woman who makes or sells sausages. + -
4 The female partner , woman who is or has been married; a woman who has had sexual experience, a woman who is not a virgin
A cleric’s concubine, occas, a concubine in a harem.
Female partner in a spiritual union; Christ as the wife of each soul from among the elect. + -
5 A bride, give in marriage. + _
6 Poultry dealer’s wife, the wife of a tavernkeeper. + _
7 A faithless wife, a married whore; wifes flatering, wifely blandishments. + _
8 Kind of service or customary rent. + _
9 The biological female of a species of animal or bird, the female member of a mated pair of animals or birds;
the female of a dioecious plant + _
10 Ingredient construed as female in chemical. + _
11 In surnames. + _
12 In place names. + _

As what have be mentioned above the word Wife has plenty of meanings and sub meanings in the period of Middle English. Despite all the meanings of the word wife it can be demonstrated that in the Modern English there is, only one meaning exists compare to several meanings in the Middle English (see the table above). That might happen because of changes in peoples' social life and how they considered things.

Table 16

The table below shows the meaning of the word Father in law in the Middle and Modern English.

Meaning
Middle English Modern English
1 The father of one's wife or husband. + +

According to the data above it can be seen the term Father in law has one meaning in both periods. That might be happen due to the restricted meaning for The father of one's wife or husband only. It means the term Father in law has narrowing meaning of the father of one's wife or husband.

Table 17

The table below indicates to the meaning of the word Mother in law in two different periods of the English language.

Meaning Middle English Modern English

1 The mother of one's husband or wife. + +

It can be seen that the term Mother in law has one meaning in both phases of English language as well as the term Father in law. That might happen because the notion of the term mother in law is restricted to the 'The mother of one's husband or wife'.

3.2. Morphology of kinship terms

This section is going to discuss the kinship terms in terms of root, affixed and compounding words.

3.2.1 Root words

Middle English Modern English

fā̆der Father
Mọ̄der Mother
sustere Sister
Brọ̄ther Brother
sone Son
Doughter Daughter
cǒsī̆n Cousin
Neveu Nephew
Nẹ̄ce Niece
uncul Uncle
aunte Aunt
hǒus-bō̆nd Husband
Wīf Wife

As what have, we seen above these are the core root terms in both periods of English. It means there are no changes in root words in that two periods.


3.2.2 Affixed words

There are no affixed words in English Kinship terminology.
3.2.3 Compound words

Middle English Modern English
Ēlde & fā̆der Grand & father = Grandfather
Ēlde & mọ̄der Grand & mother = Grandmother
fā̆der & in laue Father & in law = Father- in- law
Mọ̄der & in laue Mother & in law = Mother-in-law


The table above shows the combination of two morphemes in the two periods to form a term. For example, the term Grandfather and Grandmother contain two free morphemes, which are Grand/Elde, and Father/Mother and those two morphemes combine together to form Grandfather/Grandmother. As well as the words Father-in-law and Mother-in-law which combine of two morphemes that are Father/Mother and the phrase in-law.


4. Conclusion

In conclusion, the kinship terms vary from society to another even within a language itself, since some terms may have widening meaning in one phase of a language and in another phase, the terms may narrow in their meaning. The Middle and Modern English language has its own meanings of the kinship terms that can be related by blood or marriage despite the few similarities between the two periods. Middle English language consisted of plenty meanings for each individual terms as it shown above in discussion of kinship terms section. The term's meanings in Middle English language has widening of meanings compared to the term's meanings in the Modern English language which has narrowing meanings and that might happen due to the reasons that mentioned in discussion section of the kinship terms below of each table. The kinship terminologies in both periods are different not only in their meaning itself, but even in their structures as what have mentioned in the morphology of kinship terms section.


6. References

Cambridge Dictionary (2018) Definition of the Kinship Terms. Available at: https://dictionary.cambridge.org (Accessed: 27 March 2018).
Campbell, L. (2004). Historical linguistics. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Cruse, A. (2006) A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Dunn, G. (2004) Comparative Linguistics: Indo - European and Niger – Congo. Christchurch: Penny Farthing Press.
Matasovic, R. (2009) 'Comparative and Historical Linguistics', Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Available at: http://www.eolss.net (Accessed date: 11 March 2018).
Middle English Dictionary (2001) Meaning of the Kinship Terms in Middle English. Available at: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/med/ (Accessed: 27 March 2018).
Trips, C. (2107) 'Morphological Change', The Oxford Research Encyclopaedia of Linguistics. Available at: http://linguistics.oxfordre.com (Accessed: 19 March 2018).
Trask, R. (2000) The dictionary of historical and Comparative linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Traugott, E. (2017) 'Semantic Change', The Oxford Research Encyclopaedia of Linguistics. Available at: http://linguistics.oxfordre.com (Accessed: 19 March 2018).
Yule, G. (2010) The Study of Language. 4th edn. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Word Press (2015) A brief history of English kinship terminology. Available at: https://thehousecarpenter.wordpress.com (Accessed: 17 March 2018).
Dousset, L. (2011) 'Understanding Human Relations (Kinship Systems)', in Thieberger. N (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Fieldwork. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 209-234.
Ullmann, S. (1962). Semantics: An introduction to the science of meaning. Oxford: Blackwell Press.


7. Appendix

The definitions of the Middle English kinship terms are from The Middle English Dictionary while the definitions of Modern English kinship terms are from Cambridge Dictionary.


The terms Meaning in Middle English Meaning in Modern English
Father fā̆der
1.
(a) The male parent of a human being; (b) the male parent of an animal.
2.
A male progenitor more remote than a parent; a forefather; a patriarch; pl. ancestors; -- (a) with adjs. (first, forme, former, formest, old) or other qualifiers; (b) fig.; (c) in verb phrases; (d) simply.
3.
(a) A creator, originator, or founder; the first in time (of a class of persons); also, a patron; (b) one of the early Christian founders of doctrine, religious orders, or the like; church father.
4.
(a) One whose (spiritual) relation to another can be likened to that of father to child; one responsible for another's spiritual life or guidance or for another's care or instruction; (b) a father confessor; gostli fader, shrift ~.
5a.
Applied to God: (a) as the Father of Jesus; (b) as the First Person of the Trinity; (c) as the Creator; (d) as man's spiritual father in heaven.
5b.
Applied to Jesus.
(a) One who holds the highest position in a group or society; (b) a title of respect used in addressing the king.
7.
An ecclesiastical superior:-- (a) simply; (b) as title of an abbot or prior; (c) as title of a bishop; fader in God; (d) as title of the Pope; oure holi fader.
8.
A priest belonging to a religious order; a monk.
9.
Pl.: the senators of ancient Rome; conscript faderes.
10.
A title of respect or veneration used by anyone in addressing an older man, or by a servant in addressing a man of the master class.
11.
Cpds.: ~ quellere, ~ sleere, a patricide.
12.
Phrases: (a) fader kin, faders ~, the kin of one's father; (b) fader land, the country of (one's) father.
1. A male parent.
2. Also Father, written abbreviation Fr (the title of) a Christian priest, especially a Roman Catholic or Orthodox priest.
3. Also Father a name for the Christian God.

Mother Mọ̄der
1.
(a) A female, human parent; mother; -- also used of a goddess; (b) used of animals and birds; ~ shep, a ewe; (c) in phrases, cpds., and combs.: at my ~, at my mother's house; fro his moder(es wombe, fro the wombe of his ~, from birth; ~ care, a mother's sorrow, ~ fare, a mother's lot; ~ heritage, maternal inheritance; ~ herte; ~ kind(e, a mother's nature.
2.
A female progenitor more remote than a parent, ancestress; alde (nold) ~ [see old moder]; elde ~, q.v.
3.
Applied to the Virgin Mary: (a) as the mother of Jesus; cristes (drihtenes, godes, helendes) ~; (b) as man's spiritual mother; (c) in various attributive phrases, often in direct address: maide ~, ~ maide; maiden (and) ~, ~ and mai, ~ (and) maiden; ~ mary; ~ of blisse (delice, grace, lif, love, merci, milce, mildenesse); etc.
4.
(a) A woman, not related by blood, who assumes the role of, or is regarded as, a mother; foster mother; ?also, a matron [quot.: (a1382)]; foster ~ [see foster n. (1) 4.]; god ~, q.v.; (b) an abbess, the mother superior of a religious house; (c) a respectful term of address for a mature or an elderly woman; a term for an old woman of lower class; also, a derogatory term for a girl or young woman, wench.
5.
Fig. Something, more or less personified, that fulfills some of the functions of a mother (procreative, nutritive, protective); something regarded with the affection or reverence due a mother: (a) the heavenly Jerusalem; the Church; a university; gostli (holi) ~, ~ holi Chirche; (b) the earth; nature; a city, country, natural object, physical quality, human activity, etc., regarded as engendering or nourishing (sth.); also, anything pre-eminent in its class; ~ of herbes, queen of plants; (c) a virtue, vice, condition, or other personified abstraction, regarded as giving rise to or encouraging others of its kind; seven ~ sunnen, the seven deadly sins; (d) alch. a cryptic term for sophic mercury, believed to be one of the two principal ingredients of the philosopher's stone.
6a.
Anat. and med. The uterus of a woman, womb; also fig.; the reproductive organs or genitalia of a female animal; causes (passiounes) of the ~, diseases of the uterus; risinge of the ~, suffocacioun of the ~, a disturbance or disorder of the uterus.
6b.
Anat. hard ~, the dura mater, the outermost membranous envelope of the brain [see also hard adj. 1b. (c) and dura mater]; milde ~, the pia mater, the innermost membranous envelope of the brain [see also milde adj. 5. (d) and pia mater]; softe ~, ?mistranslation of L dura mater; pl. modres, the dura mater and the pia mater.
7.
Astron. The principal part of an astrolabe, consisting of a heavy circular metal plate, suspended from the thumb by a ring, on which are described a series of concentric circles marked with various divisions.
8.
In cpds. & combs.: (a) ~ barn (child) [cp. OE mōdorcild], a human being; man; moder(es sone, a man; ~ sone fairest, Jesus; (b) ~ burgh (cite), a chief city, capital; ~ of cites, ?a city which has dependent villages; ~ dam, a main dam; ~ ston, some kind of building stone; (c) ~ chirche, a parish church as opposed to a chapel of ease; also, the chief church of a region or country, a cathedral; ~ cathedral chirche; (d) ~ half [OE mōdor-healf], moder(es side, the mother's side of one's family or lineage; moder(es kin, ~ stren, the mother's race, maternal line; in (on, upon) his ~ half [see also half n. 3.], o ~ half, in (of, on) the ~ side, bi (of) the moderes side, etc.; of ~ stren; (e) moder(es langage, moder tonge, one's native language [see also langage 1. (a)]; ~ english tonge; (f) ~ naked, as naked as at birth, stark naked; (g) math. ~ nombre, a number to be divided, dividend [see also nombre]; (h) ~ queller (sleere), a matricide; ~ quellinge, matricide; (i) moder(es wit, native intelligence, common sense.
9.
In place names and surnames.
1. a female parent
2. The title of a woman who is in charge of, or who has a high rank within, a convent (= house of religious women).
3. Very offensive mainly US → motherfucker.


Uncle Uncle (n.) Also uncul, unkle, unkel(e, unkil, oncle, oncil, ounkil, hunkil, hunckil, (with misplaced juncture) nunkul & (in surnames) huncle, nuncle; gen. unclis, uncle(ne, unkil; pl. uncles, unclen, unklis.
(a) A brother of one’s father or mother; gret ~ [see also gret-uncle n.];
(b) used in direct address;
(c) used as a title preceding a proper name;
(d) as surname.
1. The brother of someone's mother or father, or the husband of someone's aunt or uncle.
2. Any male adult that you know who is older than you.
Aunt aunte (n.) Also ant(e, naunt(e.
(a) The sister of one's father or mother, aunt; (b) ~ doughter, the daughter of one's aunt, cousin; ~ sone, the son of one's aunt, cousin.
1. The sister of someone's father or mother, or the wife of someone's uncle or aunt.
Husband hǒus-bō̆nd
1.
(a) A male spouse, married man, husband; also fig.; (b) alch.?sophic sulphur.
2.
(a) The master of a house, paterfamilias; the male head of a household, householder; also fig.; (b) a man in charge of something, keeper, overseer, household manager, steward; also fig.; (c) an inhabitant, resident; also, a host.
3.
(a) A bondman, villein; also, a customary tenant who has a holding of land in addition to the croft land attached to his homestead [see DOST]; (b) ~ lond, the holding of a housbonde tenant [see DOST]; (c) a tiller of the soil, husbandman, farmer; also, a rustic; ~ toun, ?a farm, ?a country village.
4.
As surname.
The man that you are married to.
Wife Wīf
1a.
(a) A human biological female, a woman; also in fig. context [quot. 1340]; also, the female partner in procreation, the mother [last quot.];
(b) the mistress of a household; also, a stewardess (of property).
1b.
In phrases, cpds., and combs.:
(a) ~ kin, q.v.; ~ olde, olde ~, an elderly woman; also used as a term of disparagement [see also old(e adj. 1a.(d)]; arche ~, q.v.;
(b) ~ and man, man and ~, etc., everyone, male and female alike; wif(es sone, wifes child, a man, anyone; wif(es sones, wifes barnes, men, people; hous-bondes and wifes, ?farm men and farm women;
(c) wif(es imone [OE wīf-gemāna], ~ lust, sexual activity with a woman, coitus; wifes flewsa, abnormal menstrual flow;
(d) frensh wifes hod, a heraldic badge of uncertain appearance;
(e) ale ~, a barmaid; feld ~, ?a female agricultural worker; ?the wife of a rustic [cp. sense 2b.(c)]; god ~ [see god wif phr. & n. (b)]; hous ~ [see also hous-wif n. (a) & (c)]; mid ~ [see also mid-wif n.]; poding ~, a woman who makes or sells sausages.
2a.
(a) The female partner in a sanctioned union, a wife; (someone’s) wife; also fig. [quot. ?a1425(c1380)]; wedded ~;
(b) in contrast or collocation with mai, maide, or maiden: a woman who is or has been married; a woman who has had sexual experience, a woman who is not a virgin;
(c) a cleric’s concubine or, occas., a wife; also, a concubine in a harem [quot. c1300]; prestes (arche-dekenes) ~;
(d) fig. the figure presented as the passive or female partner in a spiritual union; also, Christ as the wife of each soul from among the elect [quot. c1475].
2b.
In selected phrases, cpds., and combs.:
(a) haven (inimen, taken, etc.) to ~, holden (to) ~, wedden (unto) ~, to marry (a woman), take as (one’s) bride or concubine; also fig. and in fig. context; holden (to) ~, welden to ~, etc., have (a woman) for a (one’s) wife, be a husband to; profren (yeven, etc.) ~, offer or give (a woman, a woman to a man) as a bride, give in marriage; willen to ~, seek (a woman) as one’s wife, wish to marry;
(b) wif(es fader, ~ moder, father- (mother-) in-law; brother (sones) ~, sister- (daughter-) in-law; double ~, two legal wives; doublen wifes, to take two or more wives; secondarie ~, a concubine;
(c) feldman(nes ~, ?the wife of a rustic; ?a woman who works in the fields [cp. sense 1b.(e)]; pulteres ~, a poultry dealer’s wife; smith(es ~, ?the wife of a smith; ?a female blacksmith [cp. sense 1b.(e)]; tavernere(s ~, ?the wife of a tavernkeeper; ?a female tavernkeeper [cp. sense 1b.(e)];
(d) ~ hore, ?a faithless wife; ?a married whore; wifes flatering, ?wifely blandishments; ?women’s wiles; wifes pine, a punishment inflicted on wayward wives; arche ~, q.v.;
(e) ~ thing, q.v.; wifes weddinge, some kind of service or customary rent, perh. a payment levied on marriage.
3.
(a) The biological female of a species of animal or bird; also, the female member of a mated pair of animals or birds;
(b) the female of a dioecious plant;
(c) alch. an element or ingredient construed as female in alchemical preparations, prob. sophic mercury; femele ~; hous-bonde and ~ [cp. hous-bond(e n.(1) (b)].
4.
(a) In surnames; god ~ [see god wif phr. & n. (c)]; hous ~ [see hous-wif n. (f)];
(b) in place names [see Smith PNElem. 2.264].
The woman that you are married to.
Son 1.
(a) The male child of a human being, pagan deity, or personified abstraction, a son; first (seconde, thridde) ~, first-born (second-born, third-born) son; (b) ~ of neveu, neveus ~, nephew's son, grandnephew; aunte ~, an aunt's son, a first cousin; doughter (sones) ~, daughter's (son's) son, grandson; em(es ~, uncle's son, first cousin [see also em n.(1) 4.]; also, nephew's son, grandnephew [quot. a1425 *Medulla vr.]; suster (susteres, brother) ~, sister's (brother's) son, nephew; sone(s wif, son's wife, daughter-in-law; (c) ~ child, a son; ~ and heir; ~ to, son of (sb.); ~ unto, son of (a god); fre ~, a male child born to a free woman; moder(es ~ [see moder n. 8.(a)]; sonnes ~, the sun's son [glossing L (ult. Gr.) proper name Eliades]; habben to ~, to have (sb.) as son; taken on sones stede, adopt (sb.) as a son; (d) a foster son; also, one who assumes the role of a son to someone else; (e) the male offspring of an animal; pl. the young (of an eagle); (f) in proverbs and prov. expressions.
2.
(a) A male descendant more remote than a son; also, a female descendant [1st quot.]; pl. descendants, members of a clan or tribe (of a specified ancestor); ~ of david (abraham), a male descendant of David (Abraham); sones of amon (benjamin, levi), Ammonites (Benjaminites, Levites); sones of the jewes, Jews by birth; (b) ~ of david, davides ~, a term for the Messiah, the Christ; -- specif. applied to Jesus of Nazareth.
3a.
Applied to Jesus of Nazareth: (a) as the Son of God; (b) as the second person of the Trinity; fader and ~ and holi gost; -- often used in formulas; (c) as the son of Mary; ~ seinte marie, seinte marie ~; (d) in selected phrases: ~ of grace; ~ (and heir) of heven; ~ of the heighest; wulderes ~.
3b.
Theol. ~ of god, godes ~: (a) used as a title for the Messiah, the Christ; (b) used specif. of Jesus of Nazareth, regarded as the promised Messiah; (c) sones of god, divine beings; angels.
3c.
Theol. ~ of man, manes ~: (a) a mortal man, human being; (b) used as a title for the Messiah, the Christ; (c) used specif. of Jesus of Nazareth, regarded as the promised Messiah; also, man ~.
4.
One who stands in a spiritual relationship like that of a son or child: (a) to another human being, esp. a religious superior or mentor; -- often used as a term of address by a bishop to his subordinates, a prophet to his people, a saint to his disciple, etc.; (b) to the church; (c) to God or Jesus Christ; sones of god (the heighest), godes sones; kinges sones of heven.
5.
(a) An inhabitant, a native; sones of israel, the Israelites [some or all quots. may belong to 2.(a); cp. Israel n. (a)]; sones of the reaume, the Jews; (b) ?a dependency, dependent village.
6.
As a term of address: (a) for a pupil; (b) for a young man, esp. one of lower rank; also, for one addressed by a pagan goddess [last quot.].
7a.
Fig. (a) One who inherits the spirit or displays the character of someone or something; ~ of mars; sones of belial (the fend); develes (epicurus, helle, wrakes, etc. ) ~; (b) one who pratices something; sones of (in) cursinge; sones of withdrauinge; (c) one characterized by the presence or influence of a quality, vice, virtue, etc.; ~ of grace (ire, pes); sones of obedience (unbileve, etc.); (d) sones of biheste, children of the promise, believers who are to be saved; sones of wratthe and dampnacioun, persons worthy of damnation; fendes ~, one who by rights belongs to the devil.
7b.
(a) ~ of perdicioun (lernesse, los), ~ o (of) tinsel, the Antichrist [see also perdicioun 2.(a)]; (b) ~ of perdicioun (dampnacioun, los, loste), Judas; (c) as an epithet for a naughty child: ~ o (of) deth, ~ of los, ~ o tinsel; as an epithet for a wicked fellow: ~ of the devel.
8.
Fig. A concomitant virtue regarded as descended from another virtue.
9.
A man, fellow; pl. persons, human beings.
10.
In phrase: the ~ of oile, a fruitful place [transl. of Vulg. L filius olei].
11.
In surnames.
1.Your male child.
2. Used as an informal form of address by a man to a boy.
3. A man who was born in a particular place.
Daughter Doughter
1.
(a) A daughter; (b) ~ ~, daughter's daughter; ~ housbonde, daughter's husband; (c) daughter of a pagan god or deity; (d) female offspring of an animal.
2.
(a) A female descendent; also, a spiritual inheritrix; deghter of the douthe, daughters of the people, mortal women; doughtres of Philistien, Philistine women; (b) used affectionately or familiarly to a young woman.
3.
(a) A female inhabitant of a city or country; ~ of Jerusalem, a Jewess; also, a pious woman; ~ of Sion, a Jewess; also, Jerusalem; (b) an ecclesiastical ward or subordinate; also, a spiritual ward; ~ in Crist, ~ in God, gostli ~; (c) a devout woman (soul); ~ of Holi Chirche, Godes ~.
4.
A virtue, vice, or faculty (regarded as derived from a certain source); scion, offshoot, branch; four doughtres of God; seven doughtres of the Holi Gost, the cardinal virtues; seven doughtres of helle, the seven deadly sins.
5.
A young woman; ~ of song, ?a female singer.
Your female child.

Nephew Neveu
1.
(a) A nephew, son of one's sister or brother; (b) a grand-nephew or great-grand-nephew; (c) a grandson; (d) a son; (e) a great-great-grandson; (f) a relative, kinsman or kinswoman; cousin.
2.
In surnames.
1. A son of your sister or brother, or a son of the sister or brother of your husband or wife.

Niece Nẹ̄ce (n.) Also nese, neis(se; pl. nece(s.
(a) A niece; also, a grandniece [quot.: 1451]; (b) a granddaughter; (c) a grandson; pl. descendants; (d) a kinswoman, female relative; (e) a kinsman.
1. A daughter of your brother or sister, or a daughter of your husband's or wife's brother or sister.
Cousin cǒsī̆n (e, cọ̄sī̆n(e (n.) Also cosigne, cosing, coosin, cossin(e, cousin(e, cusin(e.
1.
(a) A blood relation, a kinsman or kinswoman; any relative by blood or by marriage; kissen for ~, to claim kinship with (sb.); (b) ~ male, a kinsman; ~ femel, a kinswoman; ~ in laue, relative by marriage; ~ of blod, a blood relative; nere ~, nigh ~, a close relative; cosines in thrid and ferthe degre, two persons of whom one is the offspring of the other's first cousin; (c) a grandson or granddaughter; a descendant; (d) one who is related by sponsorship at baptism or confirmation; a godparent, godchild, a relative of one's godparent or godchild, etc.; (e) fig. a closely related thing, a similar thing; ben ~ to, to be akin to (sth.); have affinity with.
2.
(a) Nephew or niece; (b) first cousin, cousin-german; also fig.; ~ germain, first cousin.
3.
?An intimate, a mistress.
4.
As surname.
1. A child of a person's aunt or uncle, or, more generally, a distant (= not close) relation.
2. A member of a group of people with similar origins.
Brother Brọ̄ther (a) A brother or half-brother by blood relationship; (b) pl. brothers; (c) sg. gen. brother's, of a brother; ~ doughter (sone, wif), a brother's daughter (son, wife); ~ love, love for (one's) brother; ~ slaier, a fratricide; (d) pl. gen. brothers'; brethere wifes, wives of brothers; (e) blod ~, blodi ~, a brother by blood relationship; also fig.; boren ~, ~ naturel, fleshli ~, a brother by blood relationship; ~ germain, hol ~, a brother born of the same father and mother, a full brother; norished ~, foster brother; ~ uterin, brother born of the same mother. [See also half ~.]
2.
(a) A brother-in-law [see ~-in-laue]; (b) any male kinsman.
3.
(a) Fig. brother; -- often used of the relationship between Christ and mankind; (b) alch. a thing having close affinity with another; (c) fellow man, fellow creature [in direct address, often hard to distinguish from 3 (d) or 4 (d)]; (d) a fellow Christian; ~ in God, Cristen bretheren, lef (leve) ~; (e) fellow ruler.
4.
(a) A man bound to another by an oath of loyalty or brotherhood, a sworn brother; swerde ~, sworen ~, wedded ~, a sworn brother; (b) fellow member of a religious order; also, one who has become an associate or benefactor of a religious house; ~ menour, a Franciscan friar; (c) fellow member of a guild; gild ~; (d) close friend, comrade, associate, partner; -- often used of Christ's disciples; ~ apostle.
5.
tweine brether(en, Castor and Pollus; astron. Gemini.

6.
As a personal name.
1. A man or boy with the same parents as another person.
2. A man who is a member of the same group as you or who shares an interest with you or has a similar way of thinking to you.
3. INFORMAL Sometimes used by a black man to address or refer to another black man.
4. Used as the title of a man, such as a monk, who belongs to a religious organization.

Sister Suster (n.) Also sustere, -ir, -ur, sustre, souster, soster, sister, -ir, -ur, sistre, cister, -ir, (K)zoster & (early) swuster & (?error) syister, (errors) suste, swustram; sg.gen. susteres, etc. & suster, ?soster, ?sister, ?-ir, ?-ur, ?scister; pl. suster(e)s, etc. & susterus, -eren, -ern(e(s, -irn(e, sustre(n(e, -trin(e, -tron, -treon, sosteren, -erne, sostres, -tren(e, sisterres, -eren, sistirris, -orin, -ern(e, -irn, sistren, (gen.) susterene & (K) zostren & (early) swustre, (acc.) swustra, (gen.) swustren(e. For the spellings scustur, sester see LALME 4.252.
1.
(a) A female sibling, a sister or half-sister; ~ quene, a sister who is a queen; seinte petres ~, ?a personification of the White Paternoster; trusten to ~ no brother, to trust no one; (b) ~ bi the faderes (on the fader) side, a half-sister by the father; ~ bi the moderes (of the moder) side, a half-sister by the mother; ~ germain, ful ~, a full sister; grettere (more, older, oldeste) ~, an older (oldest) sister; also fig. [quot. a1425(c1384)]; yongere ~, a younger sister; (c) in cpds. & combs. denoting familial relationship (it is often difficult to distinguish between true cpds. and combs. with uninflected gen.): ~ children, a sister's progeny [cp. OE sweostor bearn]; ~ doughter [OE sweostor dohtor], the daughter of a sister, a niece; ~ hous-bonde, hous-bonde(s ~, the sister of a husband, a sister-in-law; suster(es sone [OE sweostor sunu], the son of a sister, a nephew; hous-hold ~, a sister-in-law;wifes ~, a wife's sister, sister-in-law; (d) a sister-in-law; also, a female relative, kinswoman; (e) a female sibling of an animal or a bird.
2.
(a) Pl. The Fates; susteres thre, fatal (parcas, shape, werd) susteres; (b) one of the nine Muses; susteres nin, the Muses; (c) pl. the Pleiades; susteres seven; (d) phebus ~, the goddess Diana; also, the moon [1st quot.].
3a.
(a) A woman sharing the human condition; a fellow woman, fellow creature; also, a woman engaged in the same activity as another, a fellow, companion [quot. c1430]; (b) in direct address to an unrelated woman [sometimes difficult to distinguish from 3b.(a)]; (c) as a term of endearment for a lover, wife, etc.; ~ spouse; pleien ~ me nedeth, to have sexual intercourse; (d) a creature regarded as closely akin to a person, fellow creature; -- usu. used in affectionate address.
3b.
(a) A woman sharing the Christian faith; a female fellow Christian; ~ in god, gostli ~ in jesu crist; (b) a spiritual intimate or companion; -- often used of the relationship between Christ and a worshipper.
3c.
Fig. and in fig. contexts: something, more or less personified, that is akin to someone or something in the manner of a sister or fellow: (a) a virtue, vice, etc. regarded as akin to another of its kind; ~ germain, own sister, true sister; seven susteres, the seven virtues; (b) something regarded as closely related to oneself; one's fleshly nature [1st quot.]; (c) alch. a like or an attractive substance.

4.
(a) A female member of a religious order, a nun; an anchoress; also, a fellow nun [quot. a1450]; a professed nun (as opposed to a novice) [quot. 1451]; also, as a title prefaced to the name of a nun [quot. 1449]; ~ right, entitlement to rights enjoyed by a female member of a religious house; susteres menouresses, nuns living under a rule prescribed by St. Francis and St. Clare, Franciscan nuns (also known as the Poor Clares); quer ~, a nun who sings the divine office in the choir; (b) a female member of a guild; haven his wif a ~, to have his wife become a guild member.
5.
Naut. Some kind of device used to guide or secure ropes or chains on a ship, perh. a pair of thimbles attached together.
6.
In surname and place name.
1. A girl or woman who has the same parents as another person.
2. A girl or woman who treats you in the kind way that a sister would.
3. A woman who shares an interest with you, especially that of improving women's rights.
4.US old-fashioned informal used to address a woman.
5. A female member of a religious group, especially a nun.
6. UK a female nurse who is in charge of a department of a hospital.
Grand father ēlde-fā̆der ēlde-fā̆der, ēld- (n.)
1.
A grandfather; prob. also [quot. 1532 rev.] a forefather, ancestor; furþur ~, great-grandfather.
2.
A father-in-law.
The father of a person's mother or father.
Grand mother
(a) Grandmother; (b) mother-in-law; (c) the earth as the 'mother' of mankind.
The mother of a person's father or mother.
Grand son The son of your son or daughter.
Grand daughter The daughter of your son or daughter.
Father in law
The father of one's wife or husband, father-in-law.
The father of your husband or wife.
Mother in law mọ̄der-in-laue (n.)
[From mọ̄der n. & in laue phr.]
The mother of one's husband or wife, mother-in-law.
The mother of your husband or wife.

توقيع : بنت النجادات

ما عاقني خجلي عن العليا و لا سدل الخمار بلمتي و نقابي
عن طي مضمار الرهان إذا اشتكت صعب السباق مطامح الركاب
بنت النجادات غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 29-10-2018, 11:47 PM   رقم المشاركة :[2]
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توقيع : بنت النجادات

ما عاقني خجلي عن العليا و لا سدل الخمار بلمتي و نقابي
عن طي مضمار الرهان إذا اشتكت صعب السباق مطامح الركاب
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